World Trade Organisation

The World Trade Organization  (WTO) is an international organization designed by its founders to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, replacing the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1947. The World Trade Organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalising trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments.

 

  United Nations Economic Commission for Europe      

 

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe  (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947  to encourage economic cooperation among its member States. It is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of United Nations headquarters. It has 56 member States, and reports to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). As well as countries in Europe, it includes the United States of America, Canada, Turkey, Israel and the Central Asian republics. The UNECE secretariat headquarters is in Geneva.

 

            International Electrotechnical Commission


The International Electrotechnical Commission  (IEC) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies - collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others. The IEC also manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. 
 
 
 

 CENELEC is responsible for European Standardization in the area of electrical engineering. Together with ETSI (telecommunication) and CEN (other technical areas) CENELEC form the European system for technical standardization.

Standards harmonised by these agencies are regularly adopted in many countries outside Europe which follow European technical standards.

CENELEC was founded in 1973. Before that two organizations were responsible for electrotechnical standardization:  CENELCOM and CENEL. CENELEC is a non-profit organization under Belgian law, based in Brussels. The members are the national electrotechnical standardization bodies of most European countries.
 
 

          International Telecommunication Union

 

The International Telecommunication Union  was established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on 17 May 1865. Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls — in which regard it performs for telecommunications a similar function to what the UPU performs for postal services. It is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
 
 

             European Telecommunications Standards Institute

 

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute  (ETSI) is an independent, non-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry  in Europe, with worldwide projection. ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and theTETRA professional mobile radio system.

ETSI was created by CEPT in 1988 and is officially recognized by the European Commission and the EFTA secretariat. Based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI is officially responsible for standardization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Europe. These technologies include telecommunications, broadcasting and related areas such as intelligent transportation and medical electronics. ETSI has 740 members from 62 countries/provinces inside and outside Europe, including manufacturers, network operators, administrations, service providers, research bodies and users — in fact, all the key players in the ICT arena. A list of current members can be found here.
 
 
  

Codex Alimentarius

 

The  Codex Alimentarius Commission is  a body that was established in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Commission's main aims are stated as being to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the international food trade. The Codex Alimentarius is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international reference point for the resolution of disputes concerning food safety and consumer protection.

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